Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle oxygen saturation on a 0% to 100% scale: reliability and validity of the Moxy Monitor

J Biomed Opt. 2019 Nov;24(11):1-11. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.24.11.115001.


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) is rapidly expanding into applied sports settings. However, the technology is limited due to its inability to convey quantifiable values. A test battery to assess reliability and validity of a 0% to 100% scale modeled by a commercially available NIRS device was established. This test battery applies a commonly used technique, the arterial occlusion method (AOM) to assess repeatability, reproducibility, and face validity. A total of 22 participants completed the test battery to scrutinize the 0% to 100% scale provided by the device. All participants underwent repeated AOM tests in passive and active conditions. The SmO2 minimum and SmO2 maximum values were obtained from the AOM and were used in the subsequent analysis. Repeatability and reproducibility were tested for equivalency and Bland-Altman plots were generated. Face validity was assessed by testing SmO2 values against an a priori; defined threshold for mixed venous blood during AOM response. The device exhibits an appropriately functional 0% to 100% scale that is reliable in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. Under the conditions applied in the test battery design, the device is considered valid for application in sports.

Keywords: muscle oxygen saturation; oximetry; oxygenation; physiological calibration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calibration
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Oximetry / instrumentation*
  • Oximetry / methods
  • Oxygen / metabolism*
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared*
  • Young Adult


  • Oxygen