Pleiotropic effects of apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ on high-density lipoprotein functionality, adipose tissue metabolic activity and plasma glucose homeostasis

J Biomed Res. 2019 Jul 26;0(0):1-13. doi: 10.7555/JBR.33.20190048.


Apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ (APOA-Ⅱ) is the second most abundant apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) synthesized mainly by the liver and to a much lesser extent by the intestine. Transgenic mice overexpressing human APOA-Ⅱ present abnormal lipoprotein composition and are prone to atherosclerosis, though in humans the role for APOA-Ⅱ in coronary heart disease remains controversial. Here, we investigated the effects of overexpressed APOA-Ⅱ on HDL structure and function, adipose tissue metabolic activity, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. C57BL/6 mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing human APOA-Ⅱ or a control adenovirus AdGFP, and five days post-infection blood and tissue samples were isolated. APOA-Ⅱ expression resulted in distinct changes in HDL apoproteome that correlated with increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. No effects on cholesterol efflux from RAW 264.7 macrophages were observed. Molecular analyses in white adipose tissue (WAT) indicated a stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation coupled with respiration for ATP production in mice overexpressing APOA-Ⅱ. Finally, overexpressed APOA-Ⅱ improved glucose tolerance of mice but had no effect on the response to exogenously administered insulin. In summary, expression of APOA-Ⅱ in C57BL/6 mice results in pleiotropic effects with respect to HDL functionality, adipose tissue metabolism and glucose utilization, many of which are beneficial to health.

Keywords: adipose tissue; apolipoprotein A-Ⅱ; glucose tolerance; high-density lipoprotein; insulin sensitivity.