Low-Carbohydrate Diet Inhibits Different Advanced Glycation End Products in Kidney Depending on Lipid Composition but Causes Adverse Morphological Changes in a Non-Obese Model Mice

Nutrients. 2019 Nov 16;11(11):2801. doi: 10.3390/nu11112801.


Low carbohydrate diets (LC diets) have been noted for adverse health effects. In addition, the effect of lipid composition on an LC diet is unclear. In this study, we used an LC diet containing two different lipids, lard (LC group) and medium-chain triglyceride oil (MCT-LC group), to examine the effect of an LC diet in non-obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed the control diet or one of the experimental diets ad libitum for 13 weeks. Increased renal weight and glomerular hypertrophy, as well as enlargement of intraglomerular small vessels with wall thickening, were seen in the LC and MCT-LC groups. Renal AMP-activated protein kinase activity was significantly decreased only in the LC diet group. On the other hand, epididymal adipose tissue weight and adipocyte area were markedly decreased only in the MCT-LC group. A positive effect was also observed in the kidney, where different advanced glycation end products, Nε-(carboxyethyl)-lysine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine, were inhibited depending on the lipid composition of the LC diet. Our findings suggest that, in non-obese conditions, low dietary intake of carbohydrates had both positive and negative impacts. The safety of diets low in carbohydrates, including the effects of fatty acid composition, requires further investigation.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products; kidney; low-carbohydrate diet; medium-chain triglyceride; non-obese mice.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted / adverse effects*
  • Dietary Fats / adverse effects*
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / adverse effects*
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / analysis
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Lipids / analysis
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Triglycerides / adverse effects*


  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Lipids
  • Triglycerides
  • lard