Background and Purpose- Patients with active malignancy are at risk for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to characterize perihematomal edema (PHE) and hematoma volumes after spontaneous nontraumatic ICH in patients with cancer without central nervous system involvement. Methods- Patients with active malignancy who developed ICH were retrospectively identified through automated searches of institutional databases. Control patients were identified with ICH and without active cancer. Demographic and cancer-specific data were obtained by chart review. Hematoma and PHE volumes were determined using semiautomated methodology. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were created to assess which variables were associated with hematoma and PHE expansion. Results- Patients with cancer (N=80) and controls (N=136) had similar demographics (all P>0.20), although hypertension was more prevalent among controls (P=0.004). Most patients with cancer had received recent chemotherapy (n=45, 56%) and had recurrence of malignancy (n=43, 54%). Patients with cancer were thrombocytopenic (median platelet count 90 000 [interquartile range, 17 500-211 500]), and most had undergone blood product transfusion (n=41, 51%), predominantly platelets (n=38, 48%). Thirty-day mortality was 36% (n=29). Patients with cancer had significantly increased PHE volumes (23.67 versus 8.61 mL; P=1.88×10-9) and PHE-to-ICH volume ratios (2.26 versus 0.99; P=2.20×10-16). In multivariate analyses, variables associated with PHE growth among patients with cancer were ICH volume (β=1.29 [95% CI, 1.58-1.30] P=1.30×10-5) and platelet transfusion (β=15.67 [95% CI, 3.61-27.74] P=0.014). Variables associated with 30-day mortality were ICH volume (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.03-1.10] P=6.76×10-5), PHE volume (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.04-1.09] P=7.40×10-6), PHE growth (odds ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.01-1.10] P=0.01), and platelet transfusion (odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.22-1.79] P=0.0001). Conclusions- Patients with active cancer who develop ICH have increased PHE volumes. PHE growth was independent of thrombocytopenia but associated with blood product transfusion. Thirty-day mortality was associated with PHE and ICH volumes and blood product transfusion.
Keywords: central nervous system; cerebral hemorrhage; edema; hematoma; platelet transfusion.