Solidago canadensis as a bioaccumulator and phytoremediator of Pb and Zn

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Dec;26(36):36942-36951. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-06690-x. Epub 2019 Nov 19.


Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) is a plant that grows in a variety of environmental conditions. It shows high capability to spread in various habitats, including fallow lands and brownfield land. The research aimed at analyzing the content of Pb and Zn in the underground (roots, rhizomes) and aboveground parts (stems, leaves, inflorences) of Solidago canadensis (SC) originating from two locations that are clearly different in terms of metal content in soil. Statistically significant differences were determined in the content of Pb and Zn in soil and particular morphological parts of the plant, depending on the sampling location. It has been shown that in the conditions of increased (compared with natural) Pb and Zn content in the soil, SC may serve as a bioaccumulator of these metals. It was determined that SC can be used as a phytostabilizer of Pb and Zn in soils heavily contaminated with these elements. The content of Zn in the aboveground parts of SC indicates that this plant can also be used for phytoextraction of soils contaminated with this metal.

Keywords: Aboveground parts; Belowground parts; Bioconcentration factor (BCF); Canadian goldenrod; Heavy metals; Soil; Translocation factor (TF).

MeSH terms

  • Biodegradation, Environmental*
  • Canada
  • Lead / metabolism
  • Metals, Heavy / analysis
  • Metals, Heavy / metabolism*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants / analysis
  • Soil Pollutants / metabolism*
  • Solidago / metabolism*
  • Zinc / metabolism


  • Metals, Heavy
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Lead
  • Zinc