In Situ Analysis Reveals That CFTR Is Expressed in Only a Small Minority of β-Cells in Normal Adult Human Pancreas

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 May 1;105(5):1366-1374. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz209.


Context: Although diabetes affects 40% to 50% of adults with cystic fibrosis, remarkably little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms leading to impaired pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion. Efforts toward improving the functional β-cell deficit in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) have been hampered by an incomplete understanding of whether β-cell function is intrinsically regulated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Definitively excluding meaningful CFTR expression in human β-cells in situ would contribute significantly to the understanding of CFRD pathogenesis.

Objective: To determine CFTR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression within β-cells in situ in the unmanipulated human pancreas of donors without any known pancreatic pathology.

Design: In situ hybridization for CFTR mRNA expression in parallel with insulin immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence co-localization of CFTR with insulin and the ductal marker, Keratin-7 (KRT7), were undertaken in pancreatic tissue blocks from 10 normal adult, nonobese deceased organ donors over a wide age range (23-71 years) with quantitative image analysis.

Results: CFTR mRNA was detectable in a mean 0.45% (range 0.17%-0.83%) of insulin-positive cells. CFTR protein expression was co-localized with KRT7. One hundred percent of insulin-positive cells were immunonegative for CFTR.

Conclusions: For the first time, in situ CFTR mRNA expression in the unmanipulated pancreas has been shown to be present in only a very small minority (<1%) of normal adult β-cells. These data signal a need to move away from studying endocrine-intrinsic mechanisms and focus on elucidation of exocrine-endocrine interactions in human cystic fibrosis.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis related diabetes; cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator; in situ hybridization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Autopsy
  • Cell Count
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator / genetics*
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator / metabolism
  • Female
  • Ferrets
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pancreas / metabolism*
  • Pancreas / pathology
  • Young Adult


  • CFTR protein, human
  • Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator