Mangiferin glycethosomes as a new potential adjuvant for the treatment of psoriasis

Int J Pharm. 2020 Jan 5:573:118844. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118844. Epub 2019 Nov 18.


Mangiferin, a natural compound isolated from Mangifera indica L, was incorporated in glycerosomes, ethosomes and alternatively in glycerol-ethanol phospholipid vesicles (glycethosomes). Actually, only glycethosomes were able to stably incorporate the mangiferin that was loaded at increasing concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 mg/mL). The morphology, size distribution, rheological properties, surface charge and entrapment efficiency of prepared vesicles were deeply measured. All vesicles were mainly spherical, oligolamellar, small in size (~145 nm) and negatively charged (~-40 mV), as confirmed by cryo-TEM observation and dynamic laser light scattering measurements. The higher concentration of mangiferin (8 mg/mL) allowed an increase of vesicle mean diameter up to ~288 nm. The entrapment efficiency was inversely proportional to the amount of loaded mangiferin. In vitro studies performed by using human abdominal skin, underlined that, the dose-dependent ability of vesicles to promote mangiferin retention in epidermis. In addition, glycethosomes were highly biocompatible and showed a strong ability to protect in vitro the fibroblasts against damages induced by hydrogen peroxide. In vivo results underlined the superior ability of mangiferin loaded glycethosomes respect to the mangiferin dispersion to promote the heal of the wound induced by TPA, confirming their potential application for the treatment of psoriasis or other skin disorders.

Keywords: Antioxidant; Glycethosomes; Mangiferin; Phospholipid vesicles; Psoriasis; Skin permeation.

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / administration & dosage*
  • Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / pharmacokinetics
  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Carriers / chemistry*
  • Drug Compounding / methods
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Epidermis / metabolism
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Female
  • Glycerol / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / toxicity
  • Mangifera / chemistry*
  • Mice
  • Phospholipids / chemistry
  • Psoriasis / chemically induced
  • Psoriasis / drug therapy*
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / toxicity
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Wound Healing / drug effects
  • Xanthones / administration & dosage*
  • Xanthones / pharmacokinetics


  • Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic
  • Drug Carriers
  • Phospholipids
  • Xanthones
  • mangiferin
  • Ethanol
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • Glycerol