Adapting home telehealth group appointment model (CoYoT1 clinic) for a low SES, publicly insured, minority young adult population with type 1 diabetes

Contemp Clin Trials. 2020 Jan;88:105896. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2019.105896. Epub 2019 Nov 18.


As more individuals from diverse backgrounds are diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the need to address resulting disparities in diabetes outcomes among these populations also escalates. Although young adulthood proves challenging for all patients with diabetes, young adults (YA) from racial/ethnic minorities and low socioeconomic backgrounds face even greater T1D management obstacles. The poorer outcomes in these populations drive an urgent need for alternative care models to improve YA's engagement in their T1D clinical care and address barriers to improved health outcomes. Previous telemedicine initiatives for T1D have yielded positive diabetes care results, especially in YA, offering one promising way to reach this high-risk population. To serve these patients better, an established and successful home telehealth group appointment model, "CoYoT1 Clinic" (Colorado Young Adults with T1D), was adapted to provide care to YA with T1D at a large urban children's hospital in Southern California. At this location, ~70% of patients have public/no insurance, and 85% are racial/ethnic minorities. In this paper, we report the process of adapting the CoYoT1 Clinic model and designing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate its efficacy. The adapted model uses meticulous study-design methods that incorporate patient advisors, quantitative and qualitative data collection, collaboration with local stakeholders, intervention development, and patient randomization into a factorial design analyzing telemedicine versus in-person and patient-centered versus standard care. The new model addresses the needs of high-risk YA in Southern California, with the goal of increasing access to care, improving follow-up frequency, and strengthening patient and provider satisfaction. The study is registered with (Clinical Trials Number: NCT03793673).

Keywords: Group appointments; Shared medical appointments; Telehealth; Telemedicine; Type 1 diabetes; Young adults.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Ethnicity*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Minority Groups*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Shared Medical Appointments*
  • Social Class*
  • Stakeholder Participation
  • Telemedicine / methods*
  • Videoconferencing
  • White People
  • Young Adult


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human

Associated data