Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric epithelial cells of at least half of the world's population, and it is the strongest risk factor for developing gastric complications like chronic gastritis, ulcer diseases, and gastric cancer. To successfully colonize and establish a persistent infection, the bacteria must overcome harsh gastric conditions. H. pylori has a well-developed mechanism by which it can survive in a very acidic niche. Despite bacterial factors, gastric environmental factors and host genetic constituents together play a co-operative role for gastric pathogenicity. The virulence factors include bacterial colonization factors BabA, SabA, OipA, and HopQ, and the virulence factors necessary for gastric pathogenicity include the effector proteins like CagA, VacA, HtrA, and the outer membrane vesicles. Bacterial factors are considered more important. Here, we summarize the recent information to better understand several bacterial virulence factors and their role in the pathogenic mechanism.
Keywords: CagA; Helicobacter pylori; cagPAI; gastric cancer; gastritis; peptic ulcer.