Neuroimaging in aging and neurologic diseases

Handb Clin Neurol. 2019:167:191-227. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804766-8.00012-1.


Neuroimaging biomarkers for neurologic diseases are important tools, both for understanding pathology associated with cognitive and clinical symptoms and for differential diagnosis. This chapter explores neuroimaging measures, including structural and functional measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and molecular measures primarily from positron emission tomography (PET), in healthy aging adults and in a number of neurologic diseases. The spectrum covers neuroimaging measures from normal aging to a variety of dementias: late-onset Alzheimer's disease [AD; including mild cognitive impairment (MCI)], familial and nonfamilial early-onset AD, atypical AD syndromes, posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), logopenic aphasia (lvPPA), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), vascular dementia (VaD), sporadic and familial behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND), frontotemporal dementia with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without dementia, and multiple systems atrophy (MSA). We also include a discussion of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for amyloid imaging and conclude with a discussion of differential diagnosis of neurologic dementia disorders in the context of neuroimaging.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Dementia; Dementia with Lewy bodies; Frontotemporal dementia; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neuroimaging; Parkinson's disease; Positron emission tomography; Vascular dementia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / pathology*
  • Brain Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Neuroimaging / trends