Effects of cardamom supplementation on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

Phytother Res. 2020 Mar;34(3):475-485. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6543. Epub 2019 Nov 21.


Cardiovascular disease is a highly prevalent issue worldwide and one of its main manifestations, dyslipidemia, needs more attention. Recent studies have suggested that cardamom has favorable effects beyond lipid lowering, but the result are contradictory. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of cardamom on lipids. The search included PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library (up to March, 2019) to identify RCTs investigating the effects of cardamom supplementation on serum lipid parameters. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were pooled using a random-effect model. Meta-analysis of data from five eligible RCTs showed that cardamom supplementation did not significantly change the concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: -6.11 mg/dl, 95% CI [-13.06, 0.83], I2 = 0.0%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD: -4.31 mg/dl, 95% CI [-9.75, 1.13], I2 = 0.0%), or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD: 1.75 mg/dl, 95% CI [-1.95 to 5.46], I2 = 71.4%). However, a significant reduction was observed in serum triglyceride (TG; WMD: -20.55 mg/dl, 95% CI [-32.48, -8.63], I2 = 0.0%) levels after cardamom supplementation. Cardamom might be able to change TG, but for confirming the results, more studies exclusively on dyslipidemia patients and considering the intake of lipid lowering agents as exclusion criteria are necessary.

Keywords: cardamom; lipids; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis*
  • Dyslipidemias / blood
  • Dyslipidemias / drug therapy*
  • Elettaria*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipids