Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma: An overview of clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Dec;67(12):1965-1973. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2036_19.


Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor which presents in middle-aged adults with progressive diminution of vision, metamorphopsia, floaters, and visual field defects. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic clinical features. It is an orange-red, usually solitary, tumor situated in the posterior pole. The visual symptoms are because of the associated subretinal fluid, cystoid macular edema, and, in long-standing cases, retinal pigment epithelium changes, subretinal fibrosis and retinoschisis. It must be distinguished from the more ominous amelanotic melanoma and choroidal metastasis. Diagnostic tools such as ultrasound, fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography are helpful in cases with diagnostic dilemma. Treatment is indicated in symptomatic cases. The management of choroidal hemangioma has evolved over the years beginning with laser photocoagulation to transpupillary thermotherapy, photodynamic therapy, plaque brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. No one therapeutic option holds superiority over the other. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of the circumscribed variant of choroidal hemangioma.

Keywords: Brachytherapy; choroidal hemangioma; photodynamic therapy; subretinal fluid; transpupillary thermotherapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brachytherapy
  • Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Choroid Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Coloring Agents / administration & dosage
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Hemangioma / diagnosis*
  • Hemangioma / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced
  • Indocyanine Green / administration & dosage
  • Laser Coagulation
  • Photochemotherapy
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Ultrasonography


  • Coloring Agents
  • Indocyanine Green