Osteoporosis is a vital healthcare issue among elderly people. During the aging process, a gradual loss of bone mass results in osteopenia and osteoporosis. Heritable factors account for 60%-80% of optimal bone mineralization, whereas modifiable factors such as nutrition, weight-bearing exercise, body mass, and hormonal milieu affect the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis in adulthood. Osteoporosis substantially increases the risk of skeletal fractures and further morbidity and mortality. The effective prevention of fractures by reducing the loss of bone mass is the primary goal for physicians treating people with osteoporosis. Other than pharmacologic agents, lifestyle adjustment, nutritional support, fall prevention strategies, exercise, and physical modalities can be used to treat osteoporosis or prevent further osteoporotic fracture. Each of these factors, alone or in combination, can be of benefit to people with osteoporosis and should be implemented following a detailed discussion with patients. This review comprises a systematic survey of the current literature on osteoporosis and its nonpharmacologic and nonsurgical treatment. It provides clinicians and healthcare workers with evidence-based information on the assessment and management of osteoporosis. However, numerous issues regarding osteoporosis and its treatment remain unexplored and warrant future investigation.
Keywords: calcium; exercise; osteoporosis; physical modality; vitamin D.