Human adenoviruses (Ads) have long been studied in the basic virology field and are exploited as vectors for gene therapy, vaccination, and oncolytic therapy. Ads are usually mild pathogens, but they can cause severe infections and symptoms in immunocompromised individuals. Ads show a large natural diversity and a broad spectrum of hosts. However, replication-competent and replication-deficient Ad vectors with therapeutic applications have been built mainly starting from human Ad type 5, because generating vectors from other human and animal Ads has proven challenging. This review provides an updated overview of vectors that are not derived from human Ad type 5. We discuss genetic engineering techniques for getting access to the natural diversity of human Ads and for vectorization of alternative Ad types. A catalogue of currently available vectorized human Ads and translational applications thereof is also compiled. We conclude with a perspective on Ad vectorology that looks into the future of Ad vectors in translational medicine.
Keywords: adenoviral vector; adenovirus; assembly; cloning; gene therapy; genome engineering; oncolytic virus; vaccination; vector production; virus type.
© 2019 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.