Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prescribing Patterns of Pediatric Urologists for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux and other Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

Urology. 2020 Feb;136:225-230. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2019.11.013. Epub 2019 Nov 20.


Objective: To determine pediatric urologists' antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing practices for children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and other congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).

Methods: Web-based survey of pediatric urologists about their practice of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with CAKUT.

Results: We had a response rate of 17.8% (n = 73). The majority of respondents always or often prescribe prophylactic antibiotics for grade IV or V VUR, while greater variability was seen for lower grades of VUR. 47.9% of respondents report that they often or always prescribe antibiotics for patients with grade 4 hydronephrosis, and most respondents report that they never or rarely prescribe antibiotics for grade 1 or 2 hydronephrosis. The majority of respondents never or rarely prescribe antibiotics for horseshoe or solitary kidney (88% and 86%, respectively), but frequently prescribed antibiotic for ureterocele. For ectopic ureter, almost half of respondents prescribe prophylactic antibiotics always or often, whereas only 18% prescribe antibiotics always or often for duplication anomalies. Only 11% reported prescribing antibiotics for prophylaxis always or often for children with myelomeningocele.

Conclusion: We report notable variability in antibiotic prescribing patterns for children with CAKUT. Given the lack of guidelines around the use of prophylaxis in the majority of these conditions, standardization of care may be warranted to decrease this variability.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis*
  • Child
  • Drug Prescriptions / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Humans
  • Pediatrics*
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians'*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / etiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / prevention & control*
  • Urogenital Abnormalities / complications*
  • Urology*
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux / complications*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents

Supplementary concepts

  • Cakut