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. 2020 Feb 1;255:109806.
doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109806. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Scaling Up the Electrokinetic-Assisted Phytoremediation of Atrazine-Polluted Soils Using Reversal of Electrode Polarity: A Mesocosm Study

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Scaling Up the Electrokinetic-Assisted Phytoremediation of Atrazine-Polluted Soils Using Reversal of Electrode Polarity: A Mesocosm Study

Virtudes Sánchez et al. J Environ Manage. .

Abstract

Electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation (EKPR) has been recently proposed for the removal of pesticides from polluted soils. In this work, we report the results from an EKPR experiment that was carried out in a mesocosm mock-up of 0.386 m3 using ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and a low permeability soil spiked with atrazine. Plants were initially grown for 35 days; then, the soil was spiked with atrazine at a dose of 2 mg kg-1 soil. A DC electrical field of 0.6 V cm-1 was applied 24 h every day, switching polarity daily. Another identical mock-up with the same experimental conditions but without plants was used for comparison purposes. The duration of the EKPR test was 19 days during which some operational parameters were registered (electric current intensity, soil pH and temperature) and soil porewater samples were taken and analysed. Plant tissues and soil samples from the different sections in which the mock-ups were divided, were also collected and analysed at the end of the experiment. 3-D profiles of soil pH, water content and atrazine residues concentration in plants and soil were obtained and discussed. The results of this experiment were compared with others previously reported by us from a similar EKPR pot test. In spite of the difficulties to get an adequate geometric and operational similarity between setups of different scale, the main output parameters of the EKPR process (electric current, specific current charge, overall atrazine removal, specific atrazine removal efficiency, root biomass:soil weight ratio) were discussed. It was shown that, although the processes carried out are essentially the same in both scales, their extent may be quite different; it highlights the limitations of small-scale experiments to predict the results at field conditions.

Keywords: Atrazine; Electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation; Ryegrass; Scaling-up; Soil.

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