Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density and Its Associated Factors in Postpartum Women

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Nov;58(6):801-804. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2019.09.013.


Objective: Although osteoporosis commonly appears among postmenopausal women, it is rarely diagnosed during the postpartum period as pregnancy-lactation associated osteoporosis (PAO). The aim of the study reported here was to investigate low bone mineral density and its associated risk factors in postpartum women.

Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 93 females aged 18-40 years and in the first month of the postpartum period. All the women had low back pain. The bone mineral density (BMD) Z-score values of the lumbar vertebrae, femur (neck and total) were examined using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry four weeks after birth. Patients body mass index (BMI), 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25-OHD) levels and complete blood counts were recorded. Participants were divided into two groups to their Z scores: the normal group (n = 71) and the low BMD group (n = 22).

Results: The 25-OHD levels were significantly lower (p = .02) in the low BMD group [4.45 (4.0-12.4)] than in the control group [22 (12-48)], however, NLR and PLR values were similar between groups. BMI positively correlated with BMD scores for the lumbar, femoral neck and femoral overall (p = .011, p = .026 and p = .026, respectively).

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency and BMI may play a critical role in PAO. Low back pain during postpartum period should be carefully evaluated. Adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation may prevent possible bone loss.

Keywords: Inflammation; Osteoporosis; Postpartum; Vitamin D; Women.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon / methods*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Female
  • Femur / diagnostic imaging
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis*
  • Osteoporosis / metabolism
  • Postpartum Period*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamin D