Background: Alterations in mineral metabolism, such as high phosphorus, high parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) have been identified as potential risk factors for heart failure (HF). Important differences in the prevalence of mineral metabolism abnormalities and in the risk of HF have been reported across race and/or ethnic groups. In this study, we evaluated whether the associations of mineral metabolism markers with HF differed by race and/or ethnicity.
Methods: We included participants free of cardiovascular disease from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to quantify rates of HF overall and across race and/or ethnic groups. Using Cox models, we tested associations of baseline higher phosphorus (>4 mg/dL), PTH greater than 65 pg/mL, and FGF-23 greater than 46.5 pg/mL with incident HF, and for interactions by race and/or ethnicity, adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors.
Results: Among the 6413 participants, median follow-up time was 14.9 years. The incidence rate for HF was highest for African Americans and lowest for Chinese (4.71 and 2.42 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The prevalence of elevated PTH (18.8% vs 7.4%) but not FGF-23 (23.1% vs 28.8%) was higher in African Americans vs Whites. In multivariable models, the associations of elevated PTH (hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI: 1.13-1.99) and FGF-23 (HR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07-1.75) with incident HF were statistically significant. However, the interactions by race and/or ethnicity were not statistically significant.
Conclusions: In a multiethnic population, higher PTH and FGF-23 were associated with risk of HF in African American and Hispanic individuals. There is no evidence that race and/or ethnicity modifies the association of altered mineral metabolism with risk of HF.
Keywords: fibroblast growth factor-23; heart failure; mineral metabolism; parathyroid hormone; phosphorus.
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