Census-based management information systems (CB-MISs) bring strength and power to public health programs by providing current information about everyone in the population covered by the program. Such a system has been developed by the CORE Group Polio Project (CGPP) in India. This article assesses the effectiveness of the CGPP CB-MIS in the management of social and behavioral change interventions. It also assesses the feasibility of the CB-MIS for vital events registration. We describe the procedures of the CB-MIS and measure the outcomes of the CGPP by observing the trends of vaccination coverage in CGPP catchment areas over time. We also compute vital statistics from births and deaths registered through the CGPP CB-MIS and compare them with the estimates from the Civil Registration System of India using statistics from India's Sample Registration System in Uttar Pradesh as the "gold standard." The CB-MIS has helped the CGPP to manage its social and behavior change communication interventions effectively, and it has contributed to the increase in polio vaccine coverage facilitated by the CGPP. We also estimate that the CGPP's CB-MIS has registered 86% of births and 98% of infant deaths, a much higher level of registration than has been achieved by the Civil Registration System for the entire state of Uttar Pradesh. The CB-MIS has helped to make it possible for community-based health workers to make behavioral diagnoses of barriers to immunization and to overcome them. The CB-MIS also provides a robust platform for community-based health workers to register vital events.