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, 8 (2), 474-482

Exacerbation-Prone Asthma

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Exacerbation-Prone Asthma

Loren C Denlinger et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract.

Abstract

Patients who are prone to exacerbations of asthma experience significant costs in terms of missed work and school, acute care visits, and hospitalizations. Exacerbations are largely driven by environmental exposures including pollutants, stress, and viral and bacterial pathogens. These exposures are most likely to induce acute severe "asthma attacks" in high-risk patients. These personal risk factors for exacerbations can vary with the phenotype of asthma and age of the patient. In children, allergic sensitization is a strong risk factor, especially for those children who develop sensitization early in life. Airway inflammation is an important risk factor, and biomarkers are under evaluation for utility in detecting eosinophilic and type 2 inflammation and neutrophilic inflammation as indicators of risk for recurrent exacerbations. Insights into inflammatory mechanisms have led to new approaches to prevent exacerbations using mAb-based biologics that target specific type 2 pathways. Challenges remain in developing an evidence base to support precision interventions with these effective yet expensive therapies, and in determining whether these treatments will be safe and effective in young children. Unfortunately, there has been less progress in developing treatments for acute exacerbations. Hopefully, greater understanding of mechanisms relating airway viruses, bacteria, mucin production, and neutrophilic inflammatory responses will lead to additional treatment options for patients experiencing acute exacerbations.

Keywords: Corticosteroids; Exacerbation-prone asthma; Precision interventions; Type 2 inflammation.

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