Current research has identified S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) as the central enzyme for regulating protein S-nitrosylation. In addition, the dysregulation of GSNOR expression is implicated in several organ system pathologies including respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic, and neurologic, making GSNOR a primary target for pharmacological intervention. This study demonstrates the kinetic activation of GSNOR by its substrate S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). GSNOR kinetic analysis data resulted in nonhyperbolic behavior that was successfully accommodated by the Hill-Langmuir equation with a Hill coefficient of +1.75, indicating that the substrate, GSNO, was acting as a positive allosteric affector. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to predict the location of the GSNO allosteric domain comprising the residues Asn185, Lys188, Gly321, and Lys323 in the vicinity of the structural Zn2+-binding site. GSNO binding to Lys188, Gly321, and Lys323 was further supported by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectroscopy (HDXMS), as deuterium exchange significantly decreased at these residues in the presence of GSNO. The site-directed mutagenesis of Lys188Ala and Lys323Ala resulted in the loss of allosteric behavior. Ultimately, this work unambiguously demonstrates that GSNO at large concentrations activates GSNOR by binding to an allosteric site comprised of the residues Asn185, Lys188, Gly321, and Lys323. The identification of an allosteric GSNO-binding domain on GSNOR is significant, as it provides a platform for pharmacological intervention to modulate the activity of this essential enzyme.
Keywords: GSNO; GSNOR; S-nitrosoglutathione reductase; allosteric site for S-nitrosoglutathione; docking and molecular dynamics simulations; hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectroscopy.