Comparison between Focused Electron/Ion Beam-Induced Deposition at Room Temperature and under Cryogenic Conditions

Micromachines (Basel). 2019 Nov 21;10(12):799. doi: 10.3390/mi10120799.


In this contribution, we compare the performance of Focused Electron Beam-induced Deposition (FEBID) and Focused Ion Beam-induced Deposition (FIBID) at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions (the prefix "Cryo" is used here for cryogenic). Under cryogenic conditions, the precursor material condensates on the substrate, forming a layer that is several nm thick. Its subsequent exposure to a focused electron or ion beam and posterior heating to 50 °C reveals the deposit. Due to the extremely low charge dose required, Cryo-FEBID and Cryo-FIBID are found to excel in terms of growth rate, which is typically a few hundred/thousand times higher than room-temperature deposition. Cryo-FIBID using the W(CO)6 precursor has demonstrated the growth of metallic deposits, with resistivity not far from the corresponding deposits grown at room temperature. This paves the way for its application in circuit edit and the fast and direct growth of micro/nano-electrical contacts with decreased ion damage. The last part of the contribution is dedicated to the comparison of these techniques with other charge-based lithography techniques in terms of the charge dose required and process complexity. The comparison indicates that Cryo-FIBID is very competitive and shows great potential for future lithography developments.

Keywords: circuit edit; electrical contacts; focused electron beam-induced deposition; focused ion beam; focused ion beam-induced deposition; lithography; nanowires; thin films.

Publication types

  • Review