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. 2019 Nov 21;24(23):4244.
doi: 10.3390/molecules24234244.

Volatiles of Black Pepper Fruits ( Piper nigrum L.)

Free PMC article

Volatiles of Black Pepper Fruits ( Piper nigrum L.)

Noura S Dosoky et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article


Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is historically one of the most important spices and herbal medicines, and is now cultivated in tropical regions worldwide. The essential oil of black pepper fruits has shown a myriad of biological activities and is a commercially important commodity. In this work, five black pepper essential oils from eastern coastal region of Madagascar and six black pepper essential oils from the Amazon region of Brazil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of the essential oils were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, δ-3-carene, limonene, and β-caryophyllene. A comparison of the Madagascar and Brazilian essential oils with black pepper essential oils from various geographical regions reported in the literature was carried out. A hierarchical cluster analysis using the data obtained in this study and those reported in the literature revealed four clearly defined clusters based on the relative concentrations of the major components.

Keywords: Piper nigrum; black pepper; cluster analysis; essential oil composition.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Dendrogram obtained from the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis of Piper nigrum oils. Entries in bold font are from this study.

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