Coronal malalignment of lower legs depending on the locations of the exostoses in patients with multiple hereditary exostoses

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019 Nov 25;20(1):564. doi: 10.1186/s12891-019-2912-6.


Backgrounds: Though malalignment of lower legs is a common pathologic phenomenon in multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE), relationship between locations of exostoses and malalignment of lower legs remains unclear. This study examined radiographs of MHE patients in an attempt to evaluate the tendency of coronal malalignment of lower legs with different location of exostoses on lower legs consisting of two parallel long bones.

Methods: Between 2000 and 2017, we retrospectively reviewed the anteroposterior films of the teleo-roentgenographics of 63 patients with MHE. The patients were classified into four different groups depending on the locations of the exostosis, which occurred on both proximal and distal tibiofibular joints (A), proximal tibiofibular joint (B), distal tibiofibular joint (C), and not for the tibiofibular joint area (D). To evaluate the influence of the location of exostoses on coronal malalignment of lower legs, medial proximal tibia angle (MPTA), lateral distal tibia angle (LDTA), and fibular shortening were analyzed for each group.

Results: Significant difference was observed in multiple comparative analyses for each of the four groups. On MPTA radiologic analysis, group A showed greatest value with significant difference compared with groups C and D (vs. (B): p = 0.215; vs. distal joints (C): p = 0.004; vs. (D): p = 0.001). Group B showed significant difference only with group D (vs. distal joints (C): p = 0.388; vs. (D): p = 0.002), but for group C and D showed no significant difference. For LDTA, only group A showed significant difference compared to other groups (p < 0.001). With regard to tibiofibular ratio for evaluation of fibular shortening, group A showed the lowest ratio (vs. (B): p = 0.004; vs. (C): p = 0.655; vs. (D): p < 0.001). Group C also presented the significant lower ratio than group D (p = 0.002).

Conclusions: For evaluation of the coronal malalignment of lower legs in MHE patients, not only ankle around the distal tibiofibular joint but also proximal tibiofibular joint should be examined, in that, lower limb deformity occurred by two parallel long bone which has self-contained joint.

Level of evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.

Keywords: Ankle valgus; Location of exostosis; Multiple hereditary exostoses.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ankle Joint / diagnostic imaging*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / complications
  • Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary / diagnostic imaging*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / diagnostic imaging*
  • Leg / diagnostic imaging*
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult