Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)

Mol Metab. 2019 Dec;30:72-130. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2019.09.010. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Abstract

Background: The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a multifaceted hormone with broad pharmacological potential. Among the numerous metabolic effects of GLP-1 are the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion, decrease of gastric emptying, inhibition of food intake, increase of natriuresis and diuresis, and modulation of rodent β-cell proliferation. GLP-1 also has cardio- and neuroprotective effects, decreases inflammation and apoptosis, and has implications for learning and memory, reward behavior, and palatability. Biochemically modified for enhanced potency and sustained action, GLP-1 receptor agonists are successfully in clinical use for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, and several GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies are in clinical evaluation for the treatment of obesity.

Scope of review: In this review, we provide a detailed overview on the multifaceted nature of GLP-1 and its pharmacology and discuss its therapeutic implications on various diseases.

Major conclusions: Since its discovery, GLP-1 has emerged as a pleiotropic hormone with a myriad of metabolic functions that go well beyond its classical identification as an incretin hormone. The numerous beneficial effects of GLP-1 render this hormone an interesting candidate for the development of pharmacotherapies to treat obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Diabetes; GLP-1; Glucagon; Incretin; Insulin; Obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / metabolism
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / pharmacology*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor / metabolism
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Receptors, Glucagon / metabolism

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Receptors, Glucagon
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucose