Gingerol inhibits cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis in rats and minks by regulating the central and peripheral 5-HT, SP, and DA systems

J Nat Med. 2020 Mar;74(2):353-370. doi: 10.1007/s11418-019-01372-x. Epub 2019 Nov 25.


Gingerol, a biologically active component in ginger, has shown antiemetic properties. Our study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of gingerol on protecting rats and minks from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The preventive impact of gingerol was evaluated in the pica model of rats and the vomiting model of minks induced by cisplatin at every 6 h continuously for a duration of 72 h. Animals were arbitrarily separated into blank control group, simple gingerol control group, cisplatin control group, cisplatin + metoclopramide group, cisplatin + three different doses gingerol group (low-dose; middle-dose; high-dose). The area postrema as well as ileum damage were assessed using H&E stain. The levels of 5-TH, 5-HT3 receptor, TPH, SERT, SP, NK1 receptor, PPT, NEP, DA, D2R, TH, and DAT were determined using immunohistochemistry or qRT-PCR in rats and minks. All indicators were measured in the area postrema along with ileum. The kaolin intake by rats and the incidence of CINV of minks were significantly decreased after pretreatment with gingerol in a dosage-dependent way for the duration of 0-24-h and 24-72-h. Gingerol markedly decreased the levels of 5-TH, 5-HT3 receptor, TPH, SP, NK1 receptor, PPT, DA, D2R, TH, alleviated area postrema as well as ileum damage, and increased the accumulation of SERT, NEP, DAT in the area postrema along with ileum of rats and minks. Gingerol alleviates cisplatin-induced kaolin intake of rats and emesis of minks possibly by regulating central and peripheral 5-HT system, SP system and DA system.

Keywords: Dopamine; Gingerol; Serotonin; Substance P; Vomiting.