The Dynamic Interplay between the Gut Microbiota and Autoimmune Diseases

J Immunol Res. 2019 Oct 27;2019:7546047. doi: 10.1155/2019/7546047. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

The human gut-resident commensal microbiota is a unique ecosystem associated with various bodily functions, especially immunity. Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a crucial role in autoimmune disease pathogenesis as well as in bowel-related diseases. However, the role of the gut microbiota, which causes or influences systemic immunity in autoimmune diseases, remains elusive. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor, is a master moderator of host-microbiota interactions because it shapes the immune system and impacts host metabolism. In addition, treatment optimization while minimizing potential adverse effects in autoimmune diseases remains essential, and modulation of the gut microbiota constitutes a potential clinical therapy. Here, we present evidence linking gut microbiota dysbiosis with autoimmune mechanisms involved in disease development to identify future effective approaches based on the gut microbiota for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis
  • Autoimmune Diseases / etiology*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / metabolism
  • Autoimmunity*
  • Disease Susceptibility* / immunology
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology