We examined the clinical outcome of 17 children, 1 to 11 years of age, who experienced major cerebral artery infarctions (strokes) as neonates. Nine of the 17 children had left middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions, five had right MCA infarctions, two had bilateral MCA infarctions, and one had a left posterior cerebral artery infarction. Fourteen of the 17 children developed seizures as neonates. Most of these children who developed seizures were neurologically abnormal as neonates, became seizure free and neurologically normal early in the first year of life, and their anticonvulsant therapies were discontinued. After a seizure-free period of one to eight years, three of the 14 patients again required anticonvulsant therapy for seizure control. Two of the 16 surviving children continue to be severely handicapped while 11 of the 16 are making apparently normal developmental progress. One of the two children presently attending school has cognitive deficits appropriate to the site affected by the original infarction. Most children with neonatally diagnosed strokes appear to have a good short-term outcome, but later onset of seizures and subsequent recognition of cognitive deficits may not be uncommon.