Update on lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: disease spectrum from indolent lymphoproliferations to aggressive lymphomas

Virchows Arch. 2020 May;476(5):667-681. doi: 10.1007/s00428-019-02704-8. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Abstract

This paper summarizes two sessions of the workshop during the XIX meeting of the European Association for Haematopathology (EAHP) held in Edinburgh in September 2018 dedicated to lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. The first session focused on the clinical and pathological features of primary gastrointestinal T cell and NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The distinction between precursor lesions (RCD type 2) and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma were stressed, including the discussion of new diagnostic markers for the identification of aberrant phenotypes. Indolent T cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract cases showed phenotypic heterogeneity with novel molecular alterations in few cases, such as STAT3-JAK2 fusion. In addition, novel clonal markers of disease, such as AXL and JAK3 somatic variants support the neoplastic nature of NK-cell enteropathy. The session on gastrointestinal tract B cell lymphoproliferations was dedicated to B cell lymphoproliferative disorders that arise primarily in the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., duodenal-type follicular lymphoma) or preferentially involve the digestive tract, such as large B cell lymphoma with IRF4 translocation and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), including diverse molecular subtypes (i.e., CCND3-positive MCL mimicking MALT lymphoma). Challenging cases of high-grade B cell lymphomas with complex genetic profiles demonstrated the usefulness of novel molecular diagnostic methods such as targeted NGS to identify high-risk genetic features with potential clinical impact.

Keywords: Indolent lymphoproliferative disorders; Primary gastrointestinal; T cell lymphomas.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis*
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / genetics
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology
  • Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis*
  • Lymphoma, T-Cell / genetics
  • Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders / genetics
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders / pathology
  • Oncogene Fusion