Gm3;5,13,14 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an association in American Indians with genetic admixture

Am J Hum Genet. 1988 Oct;43(4):520-6.


In a sample of 4,920 Native Americans of the Pima and Papago tribes, there is a very strong negative association between the Gm haplotype Gm3;5,13,14 and type 2--or non-insulin-dependent--diabetes mellitus (prevalence ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.40). One might conclude from this observation that the absence of this haplotype--or the presence of a closely linked gene--is a causal risk factor for the disease. It is shown that Gm3;5,13,14 is a marker for Caucasian admixture, and it is most likely the presence of Caucasian alleles and the concomitant decrease of Indian alleles that lowers the risk for diabetes, rather than the direct action of the haplotype or of a closely linked locus. This study demonstrates both the potential confounding effect of admixture on the interpretation of disease association studies and the importance of considering genetic admixture (or excluding individuals with genetic admixture) in studies of genetic markers of disease. The relationship between this admixture marker and the prevalence of diabetes also suggests a strong genetic component in the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Pima and Papago Indians.

MeSH terms

  • Arizona
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genetics, Population
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes / genetics*
  • Indians, North American / genetics*
  • Risk Factors


  • Genetic Markers
  • Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes