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, 50 (2), 224-233

Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Dysplasias

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Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Dysplasias

Leah A Gilligan et al. Pediatr Radiol.

Abstract

Background: Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained for prenatal diagnosis and prognostication of skeletal dysplasias; however, related literature is limited.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to define the utility of fetal MRI for skeletal dysplasias and to report MRI findings associated with specific diagnoses.

Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board; informed consent was waived. Women referred for suspected fetal skeletal dysplasia who underwent MRI between January 2003 and December 2018 were included. Definitive diagnoses were determined by genetic testing, autopsy, physical examination and/or postnatal/postmortem imaging. Fetal MRI examinations and reports were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize imaging findings.

Results: Eighty-nine women were referred for fetal MRI for possible skeletal dysplasia. Forty-three (48%) were determined to have a diagnosis other than skeletal dysplasia and nine were excluded for lack of specific skeletal dysplasia diagnosis. Thirty-seven cases of skeletal dysplasia with available fetal MRI and specific diagnosis were included for analysis. Diagnoses included achondrogenesis (n=2), achondroplasia (n=5), Boomerang dysplasia (n=1), campomelic dysplasia (n=2), Jeune syndrome (n=1), Kniest dysplasia (n=1), osteogenesis imperfecta (n=15) and thanatophoric dysplasia (n=10). A specific skeletal dysplasia diagnosis was mentioned in 17/37 (46%) of MRI imaging reports and correct for 14/17 (82%). MRI findings were reported for each specific skeletal dysplasia diagnosis.

Conclusion: Fetal MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for skeletal dyplasias and excluded the diagnosis in nearly half of referred pregnancies. In addition to providing fetal lung volumes, fetal MRI demonstrates findings of the brain in achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia, of the spine in achondroplasia and achondrogenesis, of the calvarium in osteogenesis imperfecta and thanatophoric dysplasia, and of the cartilage in Kniest dysplasia.

Keywords: Achondroplasia; Fetus; Magnetic resonance imaging; Osteogenesis imperfecta; Skeletal dysplasia; Thanatophoric dysplasia.

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