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. 2019 Nov 25;34(9):e201900904.
doi: 10.1590/s0102-865020190090000004. eCollection 2019.

Ganoderma Lucidum, a Promising Agent Possessing Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects for Treating Calvarial Defects With Graft Application in Rats

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Free PMC article

Ganoderma Lucidum, a Promising Agent Possessing Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects for Treating Calvarial Defects With Graft Application in Rats

Nihat Laçin et al. Acta Cir Bras. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Purpose: Ganoderma lucidum, a kind of mushroom used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, was investigated in the present study for its possible healing effect on calvarial defects with bone grafts.

Methods: Wistar male rats (n = 30) were divided into 3 groups: 1) the control (defect) group (n = 10), 2) defect and graft group (n = 10), and 3) defect, graft, and G. lucidum treated group (n = 10). The G. lucidum was administered to the rats at 20 mL/kg per day via gastric lavage.

Results: In the defect and graft group, osteonectin positive expression was observed in osteoblast and osteocyte cells at the periphery of the small bone trabeculae within the graft area. In the defect, graft, and G. lucidum treated group, osteonectin expression was positive in the osteoblast and osteocyte cells and positive osteonectin expression in new bone trabeculae. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was positive in the inflammatory cells, fibroblast cells, and degenerated collagen fibril areas within the defect area.

Conclusion: This study shows that, with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, G. Lucidum is an important factor in the treatment of calvarial bone defects.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: none

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. a. Haematoxylin-eosin staining (defect group). Inflammatory cell infiltration in the connective tissue (yellow arrows), increase in osteoclast cells, congestion with dilatation of blood vessels (red arrow), decreased numbers of osteoblast and osteocyte cells, and degeneration of connective tissue fibres. b. Haematoxylin-eosin staining (defect and graft group). Mitotic activity in the osteoblast cells at the periphery of the calvarial bone (blue arrows) and decrease in inflammatory cells between the defect and graft site with a reduction of osteoclast cells (green arrow). 1c. Haematoxylin-eosin staining (defect, graft, and Ganoderma lucidum treated group). Increase in bone matrix and bone trabeculae and increase in osteoblast cells in the calvarial bone periphery (yellow arrows), maturation in osteocyte cells (green arrow), and new bone formation in osteon structures within the bone trabeculae. Scale bar=50 μm.
Figure 2
Figure 2. a. Osteonectin immunostaining (defect group). Positive osteonectin expression in degenerated collagen fibres, inflammatory cells, and osteoclast cells in the defect area (yellow arrows), and negative osteonectin expression in osteoblast cells. b. Osteonectin immunostaining (defect and graft group). Positive osteonectin expression in osteoblasts (yellow arrows) and osteocytes in the graft area. c. Osteonectin immunostaining (defect, graft, and Ganoderma lucidum treated group). Positive osteonectin expression in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and new bone trabeculae (yellow arrows), increased in number along with calvarial bone, and constriction of graft areas. Scale bar=50 μm.
Figure 3
Figure 3. a. Osteopontin immunostaining (defect group). An increase in osteopontin expression in osteoclast cells and inflammatory cells around enlarged blood vessels (yellow arrows). b. Osteopontin immunostaining (defect and graft group). Positive osteopontin expression in osteoblasts and osteocytes at the periphery of calvarial bone (yellow arrows) trabeculae and new bone trabeculae within the graft area. c. Osteopontin immunostaining (defect, graft, and Ganoderma lucidum treated group). Positive osteopontin expression in osteoblasts, osteocytes (yellow arrows), and osteons with osteoblastic activity. Scale bar=50 μm.
Figure 4
Figure 4. a. MMP-9 immunostaining (defect group). Positive MMP-9 expression in inflammatory cells, fibroblast cells, and degenerated collagen fibril areas (yellow arrow). b. MMP-9 immunostaining (defect and graft group). Positive MMP-9 reaction in fine collagen fibrils around blood vessels (yellow arrows). c. MMP-9 immunostaining (defect, graft, and Ganoderma lucidum treated group). Positive MMP-9 expression in bone matrix and collagen fibrils (yellow arrows) with the maturation of bone trabeculae. Scale bar=50 μm.

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