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Thaumatin-like Protein Kinases: Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Profiling in Five Cereal Crops

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Thaumatin-like Protein Kinases: Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Profiling in Five Cereal Crops

Alok Sharma et al. Plant Sci.

Abstract

Thaumatin-like protein kinases (TLPKs) are defense related proteins having antimicrobial property. Herein, we identified two TLPKs in the genome of Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa, four in Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor, and 16 in Triticum aestivum. All the TLPKs were located at only one chromosome in each plant except T. aestivum, where they were located on chromosome 2 and chromosome 3. Paralogous analysis suggested the occurrence of one duplication event (DE) in each B. distachyon and O. sativa, two in H. vulgare while four DEs in T. aestivum genome during the evolution of TLPKs. The majority of TLPKs were intron less, while a few contains one or two introns. The introns were found in each 0, 1 and 2 phase. Protein structure analysis suggested the occurrence of a thaumatin and a kinase domain with a transmembrane (TM) helix in each TLPK. Further, a thaumatin family signature motif "GX[GF]XCXT[GA]DCX(1,2)GX(2,3)C", a "REDDD" motif and 16 cysteine residues were found conserved in the majority of TLPKs. Expression analysis indicated variable expression of TLPKs in various tissues of different cereal crops. They were high expressing in reproductive tissues in B. distachyon, while in leaves in T. aestivum. Modulated expression of TaTLPKs in the presence of fungal pathogen, and heat, drought and salt stress in T. aestivum suggested their roles in stress response. Co-expression analysis showed interaction of TLPKs with various development and stress related genes. The results indicated diverse roles of TLPKs, which can be utilized for the development of eco-friendly pest resistant crops in future.

Keywords: Co-expression; Duplication event; Expression analysis; Pathogenesis-related 5; Thaumatin-like protein kinases.

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