Impact of Vaping Regimens on Electronic Cigarette Efficiency

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 27;16(23):4753. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16234753.


Most recent studies on electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have been carried out using vaping regimens consistent with mouth-to-lung inhalation (MTL) and not with direct-to-lung (DTL) inhalation. This paper aimed to characterizing the influence of inhalation properties (puff duration, puff volume, airflow rate) on the mass of vaporized e-liquid (MVE). Because the literature on DTL is non-existent, an intense vaping regimen consistent with DTL inhalation (i.e., puff volume = 500 mL) was defined. The use of a low or standard (ISO/DIS 20768) regimen and the proposed intense vaping regimen were first compared using the Cubis 1 Ω atomizer on a large power range, and then by using two atomizers below 1 Ω and two others above 1 Ω on their respective power ranges. An analysis of the e-cig efficiency on the e-liquid vaporization was proposed and calculated for each MVE. The intense vaping regimen allowed a broader power range in optimal heating conditions. MVE linearly increased with the supplied power, up to over-heating conditions at higher powers. Moreover, the e-cigs' efficiencies were higher when low-resistance atomizers were tested at high powers. All these results highlighted that the generated vapor might be better evacuated when an intense vaping regimen is used, and illustrate the obvious need to define a suitable standardized vaping regimen consistent with DTL inhalation.

Keywords: electronic cigarette efficiency; inhalation properties; mass of vaporized e-liquid; puff duration; puff volume; vaping regimen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems* / standards
  • Gases
  • Heating
  • Humans
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers
  • Nicotine / chemistry*
  • Vaping*
  • Volatilization


  • Aerosols
  • Gases
  • Nicotine