Amniotic membrane, clinical applications and tissue engineering. Review of its ophthalmic use

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed). 2020 Jan;95(1):15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.oftal.2019.09.010. Epub 2019 Nov 26.
[Article in English, Spanish]

Abstract

The use of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology has been increasing in recent years due to its multiple biological and tectonic properties, improvement in the process of obtaining, ease of use, and advancement in tissue engineering. The amniotic membrane has become one of the main adjuvant treatments, in ophthalmic surgery as well as in other medical-surgical specialties. The development of tissue engineering has allowed it to be used, not only in its classic form, but also by the use of drops and other presentations. The different steps prior to its use (preparation and conservation), the different surgical techniques, and their main clinical applications are described throughout the article.

Keywords: Amniotic membrane; Cornea; Córnea; Ingeniería tisular; Membrana amniótica; Ocular surface; Superficie ocular; Tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amnion / chemistry
  • Amnion / transplantation*
  • Amnion / ultrastructure
  • Biological Dressings
  • Bioprosthesis
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Movement
  • Conjunctival Diseases / surgery
  • Contraindications, Procedure
  • Corneal Diseases / surgery
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes / cytology
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Scleral Diseases / surgery
  • Tissue Engineering*
  • Tissue Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Tissue Preservation / methods
  • Tissue Scaffolds
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting / methods
  • Transplantation, Heterotopic / adverse effects
  • Transplantation, Heterotopic / methods

Substances

  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Tissue Extracts