Evolution of large area TiS2-TiO2 heterostructures and S-doped TiO2 nano-sheets on titanium foils

Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 29;9(1):17943. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53651-y.

Abstract

We report a novel and facile method to synthesize sulfur-doped titanium oxide sheets and realize TiS2-TiO2 heterostructures by means of a sequential sulfurization and oxidation step in a dual-zone chemical vapor deposition furnace. The inclusion of chlorine and argon gases during the growth of such titanium-based compounds plays a critical role in the formation of desired geometries and crystalline structures. These heterostructures possess nano-whisker and nanosheet configurations, controlled by adjusting the growth parameters such as temperature, carrier gas and the sequencing between different steps of the growth. The evolution of these complex heterostructures has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy and EDS characterization. The presence of chlorine gas during the growth results in local TiS2 formation as well as faceted growth of TiO2 nanosheets through anatase to rutile phase change prohibition. The electron microscopy (TEM) images and diffraction pattern (SAED) characterization reveal the crystallinity and layered nature of grown structures, further demonstrating the 2D characteristics of S-doped nanosheets. The evolution of TiO2 on TiS2 heterostructures has also has been verified using XPS analysis. These highly featured nanostructures are suitable candidates to enhance the photocatalytic behavior of TiO2 nanostructures.