Eight new highly oxygenated fungal polyketides, namely, 15-hydroxy-1,4,5,6-tetra-epi-koninginin G (1), 14-hydroxykoninginin E (2), koninginin U (3), 4'-hydroxykoninginin U (4), koninginin V (5), 14-ketokoninginin B (6), 14-hydroxykoninginin B (7), and 7-O-methylkoninginin B (8), together with six known related analogues (9-14), were isolated from Trichoderma koningiopsis QA-3, a fungus obtained from the inner root tissue of the well known medicinal plant Artemisia argyi. All these compounds are bicyclic polyketides, with compound 1 contains unusual hemiketal moiety at C-5 and compounds 2-14 having ketone group at C-1 and double bond at C-5(6). The structures and absolute configurations of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray crystal diffraction, modified Mosher's method, and ECD calculation. The absolute configurations of the known compounds 9, 10, and 12 were determined by X-ray crystal diffractions for the first time. The antimicrobial activities against human pathogen, marine-derived aquatic bacteria, and plant-pathogenic fungi of compounds 1-14 were evaluated, and compound 1 showed remarkable activity against aquatic pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus with MIC value 1 µg/mL, which is as active as that of the positive control.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activities; Artemisia argyi; Endophytic fungus; Polyketides; Secondary metabolites; Trichoderma koningiopsis.
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