Wi-Fi decreases melatonin protective effect and increases hippocampal neuronal damage in pentylenetetrazole induced model seizures in rats

Pathophysiology. Sep-Dec 2019;26(3-4):375-379. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2019.11.003. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Abstract

Aim: Epilepsy is a common brain disorder in which the seizures could cause a neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress has an important role in the pathology of epilepsy. Some studies indicate that Wi-Fi increases oxidative stress and suppresses antioxidant systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Wi-Fi on melatonin anticonvulsive effect and oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptic seizures in rats.

Methods: In our study, we used 30 male Wistar Albino rats, 230-250 grams of the body weight. The animals were divided into five groups as control, saline (1 ml/kg/day olive oil for 30 days), Wi-Fi (12 h/day for 30 days), melatonin (10 mg/kg/day for 30 days) and melatonin + Wi-Fi (10 mg/kg/day +12 h/day for 30 days). In the thirtieth day, thirty minutes after the last drugs administration at the indicated doses, PTZ in 45 mg/kg was administered to induce epileptic seizure. The animals were observed for 30 min during the seizure stages (according to the Racine Scale) and first myoclonic jerk times (FMJ). Twenty-four hours after PTZ injection, brain tissues were removed for biochemical and histopathological evaluation. The hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1, CA3 and DG (dentate gyrus) regions were histopathologically evaluated in terms of a neuronal damage in addition that oxidative stress markers (total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI)) were measured in brain tissues.

Results: Wi-Fi was not found to affect behavioral changes associated with epilepsy (p > 0.05). However, Wi-Fi reduced anticonvulsive and antioxidant effect of melatonin (p < 0.05). Moreover, Wi-Fi increased neuronal damage in hippocampus (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Wi-Fi did not directly affect epileptic seizures. Nevertheless, it inhibits the positive effects of melatonin on epilepsy and it also has negative effects on hippocampal neuronal damage. These effects of Wi-Fi may occur via oxidative pathways.

Keywords: Antioxidant; Epilepsy; Melatonin; Neuronal damage; Oxidative stress; Wireless electromagnetic fields (Wi-Fi).