Initiation of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Medicaid Enrollees

Am J Prev Med. 2020 Feb;58(2):224-231. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.09.015. Epub 2019 Nov 28.


Introduction: Few studies have explored how individual- and practice-level factors influence colorectal cancer screening initiation among Medicaid enrollees newly age eligible for colorectal cancer screening (i.e., turning 50 years). This study explored colorectal cancer screening initiation among newly age-eligible Medicaid enrollees in Oregon.

Methods: Medicaid claims data (January 2013 to June 2015) were used to conduct multivariable logistic regression (in 2018 and 2019) to explore individual- and practice-level factors associated with colorectal cancer screening initiation among 9,032 Medicaid enrollees.

Results: A total of 17% of Medicaid enrollees initiated colorectal cancer screening; of these, 64% received a colonoscopy (versus fecal testing). Colorectal cancer screening initiation was positively associated with turning 50 years in 2014 (versus 2013; OR=1.21), being Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic white; OR=1.41), urban residence (versus rural; OR=1.23), and having 4 to 7 (OR=1.90) and 8 or more (OR=2.64) primary care visits compared with 1 to 3 visits in the year after turning 50 years. Having 3 or more comorbidities was inversely associated with initiation (OR=0.75). The odds of screening initiation were also higher for practices with 3 to 4 (OR=1.26) and 8 or more (OR=1.34) providers compared with 1 to 2 providers, and negatively associated with percentage of Medicaid panel age eligible for colorectal cancer screening (OR=0.92).

Conclusions: Both individual- and practice-level factors are associated with disparities in colorectal cancer screening initiation among Oregon Medicaid enrollees. Future work promoting colorectal cancer screening might focus on additional barriers to the timely initiation of colorectal cancer screening and explore the effect of practice in-reach and population outreach strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Colonoscopy / statistics & numerical data
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Early Detection of Cancer*
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Insurance Claim Review / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Medicaid / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Occult Blood
  • Oregon
  • Primary Health Care / statistics & numerical data
  • United States
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data
  • White People / statistics & numerical data