Various long-awaited efficacy studies of vaccines and broadly neutralising antibodies for prevention of HIV are now well underway in highly endemic settings. One broadly neutralising monoclonal antibody is being assessed for proof of concept, and combinations are in the pipeline. Two multicomponent prime-and-boost vaccine regimens are being evaluated, one of which is designed for global coverage. These multicomponent vaccines present a new level of complexity that will challenge health delivery systems. We recommend that while awaiting the results, which will appear in 2020-22, the target product profiles and full public value proposition for both categories of products should be defined, and the regulatory, policy, and implementation pathways should be prepared. Economic and health benefits, cost of goods, administrative complexity, and user perspectives will be key considerations for the roll-out of effective products. Investments in manufacturing capacity and public-sector delivery systems will be needed to prepare for product introduction and scale-up. We propose a prioritisation of activities on the basis of a broad stakeholder consultation organised by WHO and UNAIDS.
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