Background: Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and poor-quality sleep, are common among nursing students and are closely linked with academic performance.
Objectives: To examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances and academic performances in male and female nursing students and to determine gender-specific effects on the relationship between sleep disturbances and academic performance.
Design: A cross-sectional study design was adopted.
Settings: This study was conducted in a school of nursing in Indonesia.
Participants: A total of 492 undergraduate students (103 males and 389 females) were included.
Methods: Data pertaining to the biosociodemographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and Beck Depression Inventory were collected from July 1, 2018 to September 30, 2018. Academic performance was measured using grade point average of the academic year 2017-2018. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for data analyses.
Results: The prevalence of poor sleep quality, insomnia, and daytime sleepiness was 66.0%, 45.6%, and 24.3%, respectively, in male nursing students and 71.5%, 52.4%, and 28.8%, respectively, in female nursing students. For circadian rhythm preferences, 66% male and 51.7% female nursing students were categorized as intermediate- and morning-type people, respectively. Insomnia was the only variable among sleep disturbances that significantly correlated with the risk of poor academic performance in female nursing students even after adjustment of covariates.
Conclusions: Sleep disturbances were highly prevalent among female and male nursing students, and insomnia was substantially associated with poor academic performance in female nursing students. Identifying sleep disturbances among nursing students and designing effective interventions to specifically target them are required to improve academic performance of female nursing students.
Keywords: Academic performance; Gender differences; Nursing students; Sleep disturbances.
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