Purpose: Recently, it has been demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is able to differentiate between healthy parathyroid tissues and parathyroid adenoma based on the basis of a specific molecular fingerprint. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have been performed to evaluate the metabolic profile of parathyroid adenoma. Therefore, we designed a proof of concept study aimed to investigate the glucose/fatty acid metabolisms, in addition to the mitochondrial changes, in solitary parathyroid adenoma and in healthy parathyroid glands.
Methods: Nine females with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma and formal surgical indication for parathyroidectomy have been enrolled. At the time of surgery, the removed specimens were immediately submitted unfixed and a tissue slice of about 0.5 cm in diameter was obtained from the nodular lesion. The expression of selected metabolic enzymes and proteins has been evaluated by western blot analysis, using human parathyroid whole tissue lysates as control.
Results: Data obtained highlighted an increase, compared with the healthy group, of: (i) the glucose uptake by the GLUT-1 receptor and its phosphorylation by hexokinase II (HXKII); (ii) the expression of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD); (iii) lipids biosynthesis; and (iv) cytochrome c expression.
Conclusions: Our findings highlight for the first time the parathyroid adenoma metabolic hallmarks that could represent potential molecular targets usable for the development of new pharmacological treatments, allowing to reduce surgical parathyroidectomy.
Keywords: Cytochrome c; Fatty acid; Glucose; Glycolysis; Metabolism; Parathyroid adenoma.