Effects of Human Placenta Extract (Laennec) on Ligament Healing in a Rodent Model

Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42(12):1988-1995. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b19-00349.


Rich in bioactive substances such as amino acids and peptides, Laennec (human placenta hydrolysate) has been widely used to control various types of musculoskeletal pain. However, the effects of Laennec on tendon and ligament injuries are not clearly understood. In the present study, Laennec was tested to identify its in vivo effects on ligament injury in an animal model and its in vitro effects on tendon-derived fibrocytes. A total of 99 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the negative control (normal) group (n = 11) and the ligament injury group (n = 88). The ligament injury group was subdivided into normal saline-treated group, Laennec-treated group, polydeoxyribonucleotide-treated group, and 20% dextrose-treated group. Ligaments were collected at 1 week and 4 weeks after treatment. Histologic and biomechanical properties were analyzed. In vitro effects of Laennec and polydeoxyribonucleotide on fibrocytes were also analyzed. Although all other treatment groups showed increased inflammatory cells, the Laennec-treated group maintained cell counts and activated macrophage levels that were similar to the normal group. Unlike the saline-treated group and dextrose-treated group, the Laennec-treated group had low levels of degenerative changes at 4 weeks after treatment. Supportively, in vitro results showed that the Laennec-treated group had increased collagen type I, scleraxis (Scx) and tenomodulin (Tnmd) expression (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that Laennec treatment enhances wound healing of damaged ligament by suppressing immune responses and reducing degenerative changes of damaged ligament. In addition, we found that Laennec induces the gene expression of type I collagen, Scx and Tnmd in fibrocytes, suggesting that Laennec may facilitate regeneration of damaged ligaments. Therefore, we expect that Laennec can be a useful drug to treat injured ligament.

Keywords: Laennec; human placenta hydrolysate; ligament; prolotherapy; tendon.

MeSH terms

  • Achilles Tendon / cytology
  • Animals
  • Complex Mixtures / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ligaments / drug effects*
  • Ligaments / immunology
  • Ligaments / injuries*
  • Ligaments / physiology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Male
  • Placenta / chemistry*
  • Pregnancy
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Tensile Strength


  • Complex Mixtures