Objective: To describe longitudinal changes in the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolau testing among women living with HIV.
Design: Prospective cohort study with sequential enrollment subcohorts.
Methods: Four waves of enrollment occurred in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, the US women's HIV cohort (1994-1995, 2001-2002, 2011-2012, 2013-2015). Pap testing was done at intake, with colposcopy prescribed for any abnormality. Rates of abnormal Pap test results (atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance or worse) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or worse were calculated. Logistic regression models assessed changes in prevalence across cohorts after controlling for severity of HIV disease and other risk factors for abnormal Pap tests.
Results: The unadjusted prevalence of any Pap abnormality was 679/1769 (38%) in the original cohort, 195/684 (29%) in the 2001-2002 cohort, 46/231 (20%) in the 2011-2012 cohort, and 71/449 (16%) in the 2013-2015 cohort. In multivariable analysis, compared with risk in the 1994-1995 cohort, the adjusted risk in the 2001-2002 cohort was 0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.05), in the 2011-2012 cohort was 0.67 (95% CI 0.43-1.04), and in the 2013-2015 cohort was 0.41 (95% CI 0.27-0.62) with P for trend less than 0.0001.
Conclusion: Rates of abnormal cytology among women with HIV have fallen during the past two decades.