Background: Deficient and insufficient vitamin D status (defined as serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L and > 50 nmol/L) is prevalent worldwide and associated with decreased muscle strength and poor bone health. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on bone markers and muscle strength among younger adult women at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
Methods: A 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled winter intervention trial, providing 30 μg vitamin D3/day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp-bread or similar placebo products. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin 18-50 years of age, living in Denmark, randomised into four groups stratified by ethnicity. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by LC-MS/MS and the secondary endpoints: four specific bone markers (osteocalcin (OC), Bone specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BALP), Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX)) and three muscle strength measures (handgrip, knee extension strength, chair-standing), were assessed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD and subsequent linear ANCOVA models, adjusted for relevant covariates.
Results: Significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentration from 53.3 (17) to 77.8 (14) nmol/L and from 44.5 (21) to 54.7 (18) nmol/L among Danish and Pakistani women in the fortified groups, respectively (P < 0.05). The bone turnover markers OC, BALP, P1NP and CTX did not change significantly. Muscle strength by handgrip, knee extension and chair-standing test did not change significantly following the intervention.
Conclusions: Consumption of vitamin D fortified foods for 12 weeks did not result in significant changes of the bone turnover markers OC, BALP, P1NP and CTX. Muscle strength measured as hand grip strength, knee extension strength and chair-standing did not change significantly following the intervention.
Keywords: Bone regeneration; Bone resorption; Food; Fortified; Immigrants; Muscle strength; Ranomised controlled trial; Vitamin D.
Conflict of interest statement
None of the authors had conflicts of interest. The industry partners had no influence on the design of the study, or the interpretation of the results.
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