Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2019 Nov 28;7(12):625.
doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7120625.

Bacteriophage and the Innate Immune System: Access and Signaling

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Bacteriophage and the Innate Immune System: Access and Signaling

Amanda Carroll-Portillo et al. Microorganisms. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Bacteriophage and the bacteria they infect are the dominant members of the gastrointestinal microbiome. While bacteria are known to be central to maintenance of the structure, function, and health of the microbiome, it has only recently been recognized that phage too might serve a critical function. Along these lines, bacteria are not the only cells that are influenced by bacteriophage, and there is growing evidence of bacteriophage effects on epithelial, endothelial, and immune cells. The innate immune system is essential to protecting the Eukaryotic host from invading microorganisms, and bacteriophage have been demonstrated to interact with innate immune cells regularly. Here, we conduct a systematic review of the varying mechanisms allowing bacteriophage to access and interact with cells of the innate immune system and propose the potential importance of these interactions.

Keywords: TLR; bacteriophage; innate immunity; nucleic acid receptors; transcytosis.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Mechanisms of bacteriophage transcytosis to access innate immune cells. Graphical representation of the variety of ways that bacteriophage may use to cross the mucosal epithelial barrier. Bacteriophage nucleic acid is denoted in color to differentiate kinds of phage and indicate instances of bacterial infection or lysogeny. Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MC) are labeled.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Potential mechanisms of bacteriophage recognition by innate immune cells. Pictorial representation of three ways that bacteriophage may be recognized by cells of the innate immune system to initiate immune signaling. 1. Extracellular recognition by integrins, membrane moieties, or phage-specific receptors, 2. Endosomal recognition by endosomal PRRs after phage in any form is endocytosed and degraded within the lysosomal compartment, and 3. Cytoplasmic recognition of bacteriophage nucleotides through cGAS-STING, RIG-1-like receptors (RIG-1, MDA5), or AIM2-like receptors. Phage nucleic acid is colored (red = DNA, pink = RNA).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Andrew M.Q., King M.J.A., Eric B.C., Elliot J.L. Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier; Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 2011. p. 1338.
    1. Breitbart M., Rohwer F. Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus? Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:278–284. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2005.04.003. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Manrique P., Bolduc B., Walk S.T., van der Oost J., de Vos W.M., Young M.J. Healthy human gut phageome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2016;113:10400–10405. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1601060113. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Salmond G.P., Fineran P.C. A century of the phage: Past, present and future. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2015;13:777–786. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3564. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Rabinovich L., Sigal N., Borovok I., Nir-Paz R., Herskovits A.A. Prophage excision activates Listeria competence genes that promote phagosomal escape and virulence. Cell. 2012;150:792–802. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.036. - DOI - PubMed
Feedback