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, 19 (1), 1028

Measuring the In-Hospital Costs of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia: Methodology and Results From a German Teaching Hospital


Measuring the In-Hospital Costs of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia: Methodology and Results From a German Teaching Hospital

Klaus Kaier et al. BMC Infect Dis.


Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related pneumonia is an ongoing healthcare challenge. Estimating its financial burden is complicated by the time-dependent nature of the disease.

Methods: Two hundred thirty-six cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related pneumonia were recorded at a 2000 bed German teaching hospital between 2011 and 2014. Thirty-five cases (15%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hospital- and community-acquired cases were distinguished by main diagnoses and exposure time. The impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related pneumonia on the three endpoints cost, reimbursement, and length of stay was analyzed, taking into account (1) the time-dependent nature of exposure, (2) clustering of costs within diagnostic groups, and (3) additional confounders.

Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is associated with substantial additional costs that are not fully reimbursed. Costs are highest for hospital-acquired cases (€19,000 increase over uninfected controls). However, community-acquired cases are also associated with a substantial burden (€8400 when Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is the main reason for hospitalization, and €6700 when not). Sensitivity analyses for hospital-acquired cases showed that ignoring or incorrectly adjusting for time-dependency substantially biases results. Furthermore, multidrug-resistance was rare and only showed a measurable impact on the cost of community-acquired cases.

Conclusions: Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia creates a substantial financial burden for hospitals. This is particularly the case for nosocomial infections. Infection control interventions could yield significant cost reductions. However, to evaluate the potential effectiveness of different interventions, the time-dependent aspects of incremental costs must be considered to avoid introduction of bias.

Keywords: Community-acquired infection; Hospital-acquired infection; P. aeruginosa pneumonia; Statistical methods; Time-dependent exposure.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Patient selection and categorization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa related pneumonia
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Hospital and community-acquired cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa related pneumonia

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