Volumetric Isosurface Rendering with Deep Learning-Based Super-Resolution

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. 2021 Jun;27(6):3064-3078. doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2019.2956697. Epub 2021 May 12.


Rendering an accurate image of an isosurface in a volumetric field typically requires large numbers of data samples. Reducing this number lies at the core of research in volume rendering. With the advent of deep learning networks, a number of architectures have been proposed recently to infer missing samples in multidimensional fields, for applications such as image super-resolution. In this article, we investigate the use of such architectures for learning the upscaling of a low resolution sampling of an isosurface to a higher resolution, with reconstruction of spatial detail and shading. We introduce a fully convolutional neural network, to learn a latent representation generating smooth, edge-aware depth and normal fields as well as ambient occlusions from a low resolution depth and normal field. By adding a frame-to-frame motion loss into the learning stage, upscaling can consider temporal variations and achieves improved frame-to-frame coherence. We assess the quality of inferred results and compare it to bi-linear and cubic upscaling. We do this for isosurfaces which were never seen during training, and investigate the improvements when the network can train on the same or similar isosurfaces. We discuss remote visualization and foveated rendering as potential applications.