Background/objective: Lingering morbidities including physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial sequelae, termed the Post-Intensive Care Syndrome, persist years after pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC) hospitalization. Sleep disturbances impact other Post-Intensive Care Syndrome domains and are under-evaluated to date due to a lack of appropriate measurement tools. The present study evaluated the validity of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) to address the growing need for assessing sleep problems after PNCC.
Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of youth aged 3-17 years with acquired brain injury (N = 69) receiving care through longitudinal PNCC programs at two tertiary academic medical centers. Parents completed the SDSC and provided proxy reports of internalizing symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), fatigue, pain behavior, and cognitive function within 3 months of hospital discharge. Evidence for the validity of the SDSC was established by utilizing the full sample for psychosocial measure comparisons and by comparing SDSC outcomes by severity (Low Risk, Mild-Moderate Risk, and High Risk defined by reported standardized T-scores).
Results: Internal consistency of the SDSC was good (α = .81). Within the full sample, increased sleep disturbances on the SDSC were significantly correlated with Post-Intensive Care Syndrome measures, including worse physical (r = .65), psychological (r = .62), and cognitive (r = - .74) sequelae. Youth in the High Risk group evidenced greater dysfunction in mental acuity, pain behavior, internalizing symptoms, and social engagement. Findings revealed both statistically and clinically significant impacts of sleep disturbances as measured by the SDSC on HRQOL.
Conclusions: The SDSC is a valid and reliable measure for assessing sleep disturbances in children after PNCC. Results support the use of the SDSC to measure sleep disturbances after PNCC. Targeted interventions for sleep disturbances may be key to overall patient recovery.
Keywords: Brain injury; Critical care; Hospitalization; Outcomes; Pediatric; Quality of life; Sleep.