Determinants of e-cigarette use among a sample of high school students in Jakarta, Indonesia

Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2019 Dec 4;34(3). doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2019-0172.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors associated with electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among high school students in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in eight high schools in Jakarta, Indonesia. A total of 767 students were recruited by multistage cluster random sampling. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to determine the associations between socio-demographic, predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors and e-cigarette use.

Results: Respondents were 54.1% male and the mean age was 16 years old [standard deviation (SD): 1.02]. In this sample, 32.2% of students (n = 247) had ever used e-cigarettes and 11.8% of students were e-cigarette users (n = 90). Several measured factors were positively associated with e-cigarette use, including: current smoking of conventional cigarettes [odds ratio (OR): 2.06]; perception that e-cigarettes are less addictive than conventional cigarettes (OR: 1.98); perception that e-cigarettes do not cause cancer (OR: 2.38); parental acceptance of e-cigarette use (OR: 3.80); and having enough money to buy e-cigarettes (OR: 3.24). The only variable found that was negatively associated with e-cigarette use was teacher's use of e-cigarettes (OR: 0.34).

Conclusions: This study found that student social influences, perceptions about and accessibility to e-cigarettes were significantly positively associated with e-cigarette use among high school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study highlights the importance of educating students, their parents and teachers regarding safety and potential health hazards of using e-cigarettes. Efforts to implement and enforce youth access restrictions on e-cigarettes in Indonesia are crucial to preventing further uptake of these products.

Keywords: addictive; adolescent; behaviour; electronic nicotine delivery systems; smoking.